Working class (or lower class, labouring class, sometimes proletariat) is a term used in the social sciences and in ordinary conversation to describe those employed in lower tier jobs (as measured by skill, education and lower incomes), often extending to those in unemployment or otherwise possessing below-average incomes. Working classes are mainly found in industrialized economies and in urban areas of non-industrialized economies.
Working classSocialismLaborMarxist theorySociology indexMarxismSocial classes
Employment is a contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee.
International Astronomical Union
The International Astronomical Union IAU (Union astronomique internationale, in French) is a collection of professional astronomers, at the Ph.D. level and beyond, active in professional research and education in astronomy. It acts as the internationally recognized authority for assigning designations to celestial bodies and any surface features on them, and is a member of the International Council for Science (ICSU).
International Astronomical UnionOrganizations established in 1919Astronomy organizationsStandards organizations
A lingua franca (or working language, bridge language, vehicular language) is a language systematically used to make communication possible between people not sharing a mother tongue, in particular when it is a third language, distinct from both mother tongues.
Lingua francaInterlinguisticsItalian loanwordsLanguages
A miracle often denotes an event attributed to divine intervention. Alternatively, it may be an event attributed to a miracle worker, saint, or religious leader. A miracle is sometimes thought of as a perceptible interruption of the laws of nature. Others suggest that God may work with the laws of nature to perform what people perceive as miracles. Theologians say that, with divine providence, God regularly works through created nature yet is free to work without, above, or against it as well.
A hypothesis (from Greek ὑπόθεσις; plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon. The term derives from the Greek, ὑποτιθέναι – hypotithenai meaning "to put under" or "to suppose". For a hypothesis to be put forward as a scientific hypothesis, the scientific method requires that one can test it. Scientists generally base scientific hypotheses on previous observations that cannot satisfactorily be explained with the available scientific theories.
HypothesisMental structuresGreek loanwordsPhilosophy of scienceScientific methodGreek words and phrases
A shakedown is a period of testing or a trial journey undergone by a ship, aircraft or other craft and its crew before being declared operational. Statistically, a proportion of the components will fail after a relatively short period of use, and those that survive this period can be expected to last for a much longer, and more importantly, predictable life-span. For example, if a bolt has a hidden flaw introduced during manufacturing, it will not be as reliable as other bolts of the same type.
Shakedown (testing)Transport operations
Illegal immigration is the migration into a country/state in violation of the immigration laws and sovereignty of that country/state. Illegal immigration raises many political, economic and social issues and has become a source of major controversy in developed countries and the more successful developing countries.
Illegal immigrationCrimesIllegal immigrationHuman migration
Installation art describes an artistic genre of three-dimensional works that are often site-specific and designed to transform the perception of a space. Generally, the term is applied to interior spaces, whereas exterior interventions are often called Land art; however, the boundaries between these terms overlap.
Installation artContemporary artArt genresInstallation artArt movements
Physical exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness. It is performed for various reasons including strengthening muscles and the cardiovascular system, honing athletic skills, weight loss or maintenance, as well as for the purpose of enjoyment. Frequent and regular physical exercise boosts the immune system, and helps prevent the "diseases of affluence" such as heart disease, cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes and obesity.
Physical exercisePhysical exerciseSelf care
Labor economics seeks to understand the functioning and dynamics of the markets for labour. Labor markets function through the interaction of workers and employers. Labour economics looks at the suppliers of labor services (workers), the demands of labour services (employers), and attempts to understand the resulting pattern of wages, employment, and income. In economics, labor is a measure of the work done by human beings.
Labour economicsLaborLabor economicsCore issues in ethics
Utilitarianism is an ethical theory holding that the proper course of action is the one that maximizes the overall "happiness". It is thus a form of consequentialism, meaning that the moral worth of an action is determined only by its resulting outcome, and that one can only weigh the morality of an action after knowing all its consequences. Two influential contributors to this theory are Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill.
UtilitarianismUtilitarianismHedonismClassical liberalismConsequentialismSocial philosophyEthical theories
Internet Engineering Task Force
The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) develops and promotes Internet standards, cooperating closely with the W3C and ISO/IEC standards bodies and dealing in particular with standards of the TCP/IP and Internet protocol suite. It is an open standards organization, with no formal membership or membership requirements.
Internet Engineering Task ForceTask forcesHistory of the InternetInternet governanceStandards organizationsComputer network organizations1986 establishments
The Chalcolithic period or Copper Age, also known as the Eneolithic/Æneolithic, is a phase of the Bronze Age in which the addition of tin to copper to form bronze during smelting remained yet unknown by the metallurgists of the times. The Copper Age was originally defined as a transition between the Neolithic and the Bronze Age. An archaeological site in southeastern Europe contains the oldest securely dated evidence of copper making at high temperature, from 7,000 years ago.
A team comprises a group of people or animals linked in a common purpose. Teams are especially appropriate for conducting tasks that are high in complexity and have many interdependent subtasks. A group in itself does not necessarily constitute a team. Teams normally have members with complementary skills and generate synergy through a coordinated effort which allows each member to maximize his/her strengths and minimize his/her weaknesses.
Metalworking is the process of working with metals to create individual parts, assemblies, or large scale structures. The term covers a wide range of work from large ships and bridges to precise engine parts and delicate jewelry. It therefore includes a correspondingly wide range of skills, processes, and tools. Metalworking is a science, art, hobby, industry and trade. Its historical roots span cultures, civilizations, and millennia.
Open-pit mining or Opencast mining refers to a method of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit or borrow. The term is used to differentiate this form of mining from extractive methods that require tunneling into the earth such as long wall mining.
Open-pit miningSurface mining
List of Naruto episodes
Naruto is an anime series based on the manga series of the same name by Masashi Kishimoto. The series was directed by Hayato Date and produced by Studio Pierrot and TV Tokyo. The episodes have been released in North America by Viz Media. 135 episodes were based on the first twenty-seven volumes of the manga, while the remaining 85 episodes are exclusive to the anime.
List of Naruto episodesNaruto episodes
The craft of stonemasonry has existed since the dawn of civilization - creating buildings, structures, and sculpture using stone from the earth. These materials have been used to construct many of the long-lasting, ancient monuments, artifacts, cathedrals, and cities in a wide variety of cultures.
Postdoctoral research is scholarly research conducted by a person who has recently completed doctoral studies, normally within the previous five years. It is intended to further deepen expertise in a specialist subject, including acquiring novel skills and methods.
Postdoctoral researchResearchAcademic administrationEducation and training occupations
Labour law (also called labor law or employment law) is the body of laws, administrative rulings, and precedents which address the legal rights of, and restrictions on, working people and their organizations. As such, it mediates many aspects of the relationship between trade unions, employers and employees. In Canada, employment laws related to unionized workplaces are differentiated from those relating to particular individuals. In most countries however, no such distinction is made.
Labour lawWorking timeWorking conditionsEmployment compensationLabour lawSocial programsLabour relations
A repertory theatre (also called repertory, rep or stock) can be a Western theatre and opera production in which a resident company presents works from a specified repertoire, usually in alternation or rotation.
Repertory theatreTheatre in the United StatesTheatreTheatre in the United Kingdom
Woodworking is the process of building, making or carving something using wood.
The proletariat (from Latin proletarius, a citizen of the lowest class) is a term used to identify a lower social class, usually the working class; a member of such a class is proletarian. Originally it was identified as those people who had no wealth other than their children.
ProletariatSocialismMarxist theoryMarxismPovertySocial classes
The labour movement or labor movement is a broad term for the development of a collective organization of working people, to campaign for better working conditions and treatment from their employers and governments, in particular through the implementation of specific laws governing labour relations. Trade unions are collective organizations within societies, organized for the purpose of representing the interests of workers and the working class.
Labour movementLaborLabor movement
RMIT University (officially the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology) is an Australian public university located in Melbourne, Victoria. It has two branches, referred to as RMIT University in Australia and RMIT International University in Vietnam. RMIT was founded in 1887 by prominent grazier and philanthropist, The Hon. Francis Ormond. It is the third-oldest higher education provider in the state of Victoria and the seventh-oldest in Australia.
RMIT UniversityAssociation of Commonwealth UniversitiesUniversities in Ho Chi Minh City1887 establishments in AustraliaEducational institutions established in 1887TAFE Colleges in MelbourneUniversities in AustraliaOrganisations based in Australia with royal patronageUniversities in VietnamUniversities in MelbourneTechnical universities and collegesAustralian vocational education and training providersOnline collegesRMIT UniversityDistance education institutions
Max Planck Society
The Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science (German: Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften e. V. ; abbreviated MPG) is a formally independent non-governmental and non-profit association of German research institutes publicly funded by the federal and the 16 state governments of Germany.
Max Planck SocietyScientific organisations based in Germany1948 establishmentsMax Planck SocietyResearch institutes in Germany
The term Cockney has both geographical and linguistic associations. Geographically and culturally, it often refers to working-class Londoners, particularly those in the East End. Linguistically, it refers to the form of English spoken by this group.
CockneyLondon wordsEnglish language in EnglandLanguages of the United KingdomRegional nicknames
An interpersonal relationship is an association between two or more people that may range from fleeting to enduring. This association may be based on inference, love, solidarity, regular business interactions, or some other type of social commitment. Interpersonal relationships are formed in the context of social, cultural and other influences.
Interpersonal relationshipInterpersonal relationships
Sonata form is a large-scale musical structure used widely since the middle of the 18th century. While it is typically used in the first movement of multi-movement pieces, it is sometimes used in subsequent movements as well—particularly the final movement. The teaching of sonata form in music theory rests on a standard definition and a series of hypotheses about the underlying reasons for the durability and variety of the form—a definition that arose in the second quarter of the 19th century.
Sonata formMusical form
German Revolution of 1918–1919
German Revolution of 1918–1919
Occupational safety and health
Occupational safety and health (OSH) is a cross-disciplinary area concerned with protecting the safety, health and welfare of people engaged in work or employment. The goal of occupational safety and health programs is to foster a safe and healthy work environment.
Occupational safety and healthOccupational safety and healthRisk managementIndustrial hygieneEnvironmental social scienceSafety engineering
DNA sequencing includes several methods and technologies that are used for determining the order of the nucleotide bases—adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine—in a molecule of DNA. Knowledge of DNA sequences has become indispensable for basic biological research, other research branches utilizing DNA sequencing, and in numerous applied fields such as diagnostic, biotechnology, forensic biology and biological systematics.
DNA sequencingMolecular biologyDNA sequencingMolecular biology techniques
Prada S.p.A. is an Italian fashion label specializing in luxury goods for men and women (ready-to-wear, leather accessories, shoes, luggage and hats), founded in 1913 by Mario Prada.
PradaClothing brandsCompanies based in MilanBags (fashion)Warrants issued in Hong Kong Stock ExchangeItalian brandsCompanies established in 1913Companies listed on the Hong Kong Stock ExchangeLuxury brandsClothing companies of ItalyHigh fashion brands
A double agent, commonly abbreviated referral of double secret agent, is a counterintelligence term used to designate an employee of a secret service or organization, whose primary aim is to spy on the target organization, but who in fact is a member of that same target organization themselves.
Double agentDouble agentsSpies by roleMilitary command staff occupations
Stevedore, dockworker, docker, dock labourer, wharfie and longshoreman can have various waterfront-related meanings concerning loading and unloading ships, according to place and country. The word stevedore originated in Portugal or Spain, and entered the English language through its use by sailors.
StevedoreMarine occupationsPoles in Baltimore, MarylandPortuguese loanwords
The term multiple unit or MU is used to describe a self-propelled carriages capable of coupling with other units of the same or similar type and still being controlled from one driving cab. The term is commonly used to denote passenger trainsets consisting of more than one carriage. Single self-propelling carriages can be referred to as multiple units if capable of operating with other units.
Multiple unitElectric rail transportMultiple units
Leisure, or free time, is time spent away from business, work, and domestic chores. It is also the periods of time before or after necessary activities such as eating, sleeping and, where it is compulsory, education. The distinction between leisure and unavoidable activities is loosely applied, i.e. people sometimes do work-oriented tasks for pleasure as well as for long-term utility. A distinction may also be drawn between free time and leisure.
In computing, memory refers to the physical devices used to store programs (sequences of instructions) or data on a temporary or permanent basis for use in a computer or other digital electronic device. The term primary memory is used for the information in physical systems which are fast, as a distinction from secondary memory, which are physical devices for program and data storage which are slow to access but offer higher memory capacity.
Computer memoryComputer memoryComputer storage
Working memory has been defined as the system which actively holds information in the mind to do verbal and nonverbal tasks such as reasoning and comprehension, and to make it available for further information processing. Working memory tasks are those that require the goal-oriented active monitoring or manipulation of information or behaviors in the face of interfering processes and distractions.
Working memoryAttention-deficit hyperactivity disorderMemory processesDyslexiaProblem solvingCreativity
A draft horse (US), draught horse (UK) or dray horse (from the Old English dragan meaning to draw or haul; compare Dutch dragen meaning to carry), less often called a work horse or heavy horse, is a large horse bred for hard, heavy tasks such as ploughing and farm labor. There are a number of different breeds, with varying characteristics but all share common traits of strength, patience, and a docile temperament which made them indispensable to generations of pre-industrial farmers.
Draft horseAnimal-powered transportTypes of horse
A police dog, often referred to as a "K-9" in some areas, is a dog that is trained specifically to assist police and other law-enforcement personnel in their work. The most commonly used breed is the German Shepherd, although now Belgian Malinois are also fairly popular dogs to use.
Police dogLaw enforcement animalsWorking animalsWorking dogsDog types
A working title, sometimes called a production title, is the temporary name of a product or project used during its development, usually used in filmmaking, television production, novel, video game, or music album.
Working titleFilm productionEditing
Manual labour (manual labor in American English) or manual work is physical work done by people, most especially in contrast to that done by machines, and also to that done by working animals. It is most literally work done with the hands (the word "manual" comes from the Latin word for hand), and, by figurative extension, it is work done with any of the muscles and bones of the body.
A cable ferry is guided and in many cases propelled across a river or other larger body of water by cables connected to both shores. They are also called chain ferries, floating bridges, or punts. Early cable ferries often used either rope or steel chains, with the latter resulting in the alternate name of chain ferry. Both of these were largely replaced by stronger and more durable wire cable by the late 19th century.
Order of the Red Banner
The Order of the Red Banner (Russian: Орден Крaсного Знамени) was the first Soviet military decoration. The order was established on 16 September, 1918, during the Russian Civil War by decree of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee. It was the highest award of Soviet Russia, subsequently the Soviet Union, until the Order of Lenin was established in 1930. Recipients were recognised for extraordinary heroism, dedication, and courage demonstrated on the battlefield.
Order of the Red BannerMilitary awards and decorations of the Soviet UnionAwards disestablished in 1991Awards established in 1924Courage awardsRecipients of the Order of the Red BannerAwards established in 1918
The eight-hour day movement or 40-hour week movement, also known as the short-time movement, had its origins in the Industrial Revolution in Britain, where industrial production in large factories transformed working life and imposed long hours and poor working conditions. With working conditions unregulated, the health, welfare, and morale of working people suffered. The use of child labour was common. The working day could range from 10 to 16 hours for six days a week.
Eight-hour dayWorking timeLabor rightsLabor historyLabour history of AustraliaLabour relations
The French Revolution was in origin an uprising of the commoners against the nobility and the clergy]] The terms common people, the masses, or commoners denote a broad social division referring to regular people who are members of neither the nobility or the priesthood. Following the rise of the middle class in the 19th century, this division is now of mainly historical interest.
CommonerSocial divisionsPolitical history of the Ancien Régime
A bouncer (also known as a doorman, door supervisor or cooler) is an informal term for a type of security guard, employed at venues such as bars, nightclubs or concerts to provide security, check legal age, to refuse entry for intoxication, aggressive behavior or non-compliance with statutory or establishment rules.
Bouncer (doorman)SurveillanceSecurity guardsNightclubsCrime preventionSecurity
© 4Internet LLC, 2016 - All Rights Reserved.